Urine cytology

A urinalysis is a simple and painless test that examines your urine. A urinalysis is used to look at small samples of your urine to detect and manage a large number of disorders. You may need to have a urinalysis if you have suspected kidney problems, infections or pain when urinating. A urinalysis is able to check, diagnose and monitor conditions such as early stages of diabetes, liver and kidney disease.


There are three parts to a urine test:

Visual exam – A urine assessment will cover the appearance of your urine. Whether it be cloudy, clear, blood tinged or even foamy, the difference in appearance may be a sign of a problem.


Dipstick test – A thin plastic strip with chemicals on it is dipped into urine, where it will change colour with changes in pH, protein, blood, white cells and signs of infection.


Microscopic exam – A small amount of urine will be placed under a microscope to check for any discrepancies in your urine that can’t be seen by the naked eye, such as red and white blood cells, bacteria and crystals.

What are we checking?

Acidity (pH). The pH level indicates the amount of acid in urine. Abnormal pH levels may be a sign of kidney stones or infections.

Protein. Protein flows through our blood and not urine, so if protein is found in the urine, there may be a problem with your kidneys.

Sugar. If sugar is found in your urine, this may be a sign of diabetes.

Bilirubin. This is made from red blood cell breakdown. Bilirubin in your urine may be a sign of liver disease.

White blood cells and nitrites. If either nitrites or leukocyte esterase (a product of white blood cells) are detected in your urine, it may be a sign of a urinary tract infection.

Blood. Signs of blood in your urine can be a red flag for a number of conditions, such as damage, infection, cancer or kidney stones.

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